The Scientific Method: Definition, Terms and Stages

The Scientific Method: Definition, Terms and Stages

What do we do when we are faced with a problem? The answer must be to find a solution or a way out of the problem, right? Whatever the problem, whether it’s mediocre, extraordinary, or even more scientific. One thing is for sure, there are always certain ways we can do it. For problems that are scientific in nature, for example, we know this method as the scientific method.

The scientific method is a systematic way used by scientists to solve or find answers to the problems encountered in research. Research itself is an attempt to find, develop and test the truth of a knowledge that is carried out using the scientific method.

Requirements of the Scientific Method

There are several requirements needed in writing the scientific method, including systematic, consistent and operational.

Read Also : Research Proposal Systematics

Systematic, which means that the elements contained in the scientific method must be arranged in a logical order; Consistent, meaning that there is a match between the elements. For example, the objectives must be in accordance with the formulation of the problem posed; and Operational, which means the scientific method can explain how the research is carried out.

Stages of the Scientific Method

There are five basic steps or stages in writing the scientific method. Starting from formulating problems, collecting information, formulating hypotheses, conducting experiments and data analysis, drawing conclusions to communicating research results.

1. Formulate the Problem

Problems are usually in the form of questions that must be answered by conducting a scientific study.

There are several things that need to be taken into account when we will formulate the problem:

  • The problem must be expressed as a question sentence
  • The wording of the problem should be short, concise, clear and easy to understand.
  • The formulation of the problem should be a problem that can be solved.

2. Gathering Information

After formulating the problem, the next step we have to do is collect information or data. This can be done by observation or study of literature such as scientific journals, or other studies that have existed before.

Read Also : Writing a Good and Correct Proposal

3. Formulate Hypotheses

In the next stage, after we make observations and get the data, then what must be done is to make a hypothesis. The hypothesis is a temporary answer to a problem that is still presumption because it still has to be proven true through research.

4. Doing Experiments

To test the truth of the hypothesis or tentative answer that we have made in the previous stage, all we have to do is conduct an experiment or research. Research must be carried out carefully so that accurate data can be obtained.

5. Analyze Data

At this stage, the data that we have obtained from the research results are recorded and processed into graphs or diagrams so that they are easy to analyze.

6. Making Conclusions

Conclusions are drawn carefully based on experimental results, without the influence of personal opinion. The conclusion is the actual answer to the hypothesis that has been proposed.

Read Also : Scientific Works, Understanding and Types

7. Communicating Research Results

The final step is to communicate and publish the research results to others in the form of a written report or through discussion forums and seminars.

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